Inflammation is a process by which the white blood cells, and substances they produce, protect us from an infection of foreign organisms, such as bacteria. The immune system recognizes damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens, and it begins the healing process. When the body’s immune response results in inflammation, it is usually associated with an increase in blood pressure due to a larger blood flow to the region, which in turn causes swelling and redness.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. When it is acute, it occurs as an immediate response to trauma (an injury or surgery). Chronic may be an indication of an ongoing condition.



Ankle Injury
Usually due to an underlying injury, ankle pain refers to any kind of sudden or worsening discomfort affecting any part of the ankle.

Ankle Joint Injury
An ankle joint injury may be due to the soft tissues of a ligament or tendon stretching beyond their capacity, better known as an ankle sprain or strain.

Ankle Sprain
An ankle sprain refers to tearing of the ligaments of the ankle. The most common ankle sprain occurs on the lateral (outside) part of the ankle.

Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
The pain and stiffness you feel in your feet and ankles as you age could be arthritis. If left untreated, this nagging pain can get worse over time, eventually making it difficult to walk even short distances.

Bent Toe Disorders (Hammer, Mallet and Claw)
A bent toe disorder is an oddly bent toe joint. Hammer, claw and mallet toes are often painful and commonly occur in one or more of the four smaller toes.

Big Toe Arthritis (Hallux Rigidus)
Hallux rigidus is arthritis of the joint at the base of the big toe.

Bone Injury
A single foot contains 26 bones, any of which can be linked to a source of discomfort. A bone injury can affect the shape, balance or function of the foot.

Bone Spurs
Bone spurs (also called osteophytes) are smooth, hard bumps of extra bone that form on the ends of bones.

Bone Union Problem
A bone is “healed” when it is strong enough to allow for normal activities. A bone union problem is a bone that does not heal properly or is taking longer than expected.

Broken Ankle (Ankle Fracture)
Ankle fractures can range from less serious avulsion injuries (small pieces of bone that have been pulled off) to severe, shattering-type breaks.

A bunion is a visible, bony bump that forms at the joint of the toe. It occurs when some of the bones in the front part of the foot move out of place.

A bunionette is a condition similar to a bunion, but considered unique in that it affects the joint at the base of the baby toe.

Bursitis is a painful inflammation of a small fluid-filled sac called a bursa, which is located under the tendon and serves as it’s protection.

Charcot Foot
Charcot foot is the deteriation of the foot’s structural integrity as a result of injuries incured following nerve damage.

Deep Vein Thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition where blood gets trapped on the inner walls of a vein and forms a solid clump of blood known as a blood clot.

Equinus Contracture
Equinus contracture is a condition in which the upward bending motion of the ankle joint is limited, lacking the flexibility to lift the top of the foot.

Fifth Metatarsal Fracture (Jones Fracture)
A Jones fracture occurs in the fifth metatarsal — the long bone on the outside of the foot that connects to the little toe.

FlatFoot Deformity – Adult
Adult flatfoot is caused by changes in the tendon, impairing its ability to support the arch, thus resulting in the flattening of the foot.

Foot Fractures
Ankle fractures are common foot injuries most often caused by your ankle rolling inward or outward. A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone.

Gout is a kind of arthritis. It can cause a sensation of sudden burning, stiffness, and swelling in the affected joint (usually the big toe).

Great Big Toe Joint Disorder
Hallux rigidus is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the great big toe. It causes pain and stiffness in the joint.

Haglund’s Deformity
Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel that, when it rubs against shoes, may irritate the soft tissues near the Achilles tendon.

Heel Bone Fractures
The heel bone is often compared to a hard-boiled egg due to its thin, hard covering on the outside and its soft, spongy bone on the inside. Once the outer shell is broken, the bone tends to collapse and become fragmented.

Ankle Impingement is a condition where pain is experienced due to compression of the bony or soft tissue structures during a specific range of motion.

Ingrown Toenail
An Ingrown toenail is a common condition in which the corner or the side of a toenail grows into the soft flesh of the toe.

Injuries to the Achilles Tendon
An overly stressed Achilles tendon can be subject to mild or serious injuries. If the injury is mild or moderate, it may be limited to burning or stiffness.

Instability is the inability of a joint to support weight or maintain balance, a feat which requires coordination between functional ligaments and tendons.

Lateral Column Overload
Lateral column overload is a condition describing pain due to excessive weight running through the lateral column onto the outer part of the midfoot.

Ligament Sprain
An ankle sprain is an injury to a ligament, a band of tissue that functions like a rubber band to connect bones and bind joints together.

Lisfranc Injury
A lisfranc injury occurs as a result of direct or indirect forces exerted on the foot. A direct force often involves something heavy falling on the foot.

Metatarsal and Toe Fractures
Fractures of the toe and metatarsal bones in your foot are common and breaks in the metatarsal bones may be caused by either stress or trauma.

Osteoarthritis is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in one or more joints. Cartilage cushions the bones during movement.

Osteochondral Lesions
Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT), sometimes called osteochondritis dessicans or osteochondral fractures, are injuries to the talus (the bottom bone of the ankle joint) that involve both the bone itself as well as cartilage that overlays it.

Peroneal Tendon Injury
A peroneal tendon injury most commonly occurs in individuals who participate in sports that involve repetitive ankle motion.

Plantar Fasciitis
Plantar Fasciitis is caused by repeated strain on the plantar fascia, the ligament that connects the heel bone to the toes, supporting the arch of the foot.

Plantar Warts
Plantar warts are a common viral skin infection on the bottom (plantar) side of your foot.

Progressive Flatfoot (Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction)
If this tendon becomes inflamed, overstretched, or torn, you may experience pain on the inner ankle and gradually lose the inner arch on the bottom of your foot, leading to flatfoot.

Sesamoid Injury
A sesamoid acts as a pulley to help a tendon flex and curl. A sesamoid injury affects the bone’s ability to provide leverage while walking and jumping.

Sinus Tarsi Syndrome
Sinus tarsi syndrome is painful swelling on the outside of the joint below the ankle known as the subtalar joint. This joint allows the foot to move from side to side.

Sport Injury
A sport injury is a common problem faced by many. Both competitive and recreational play subject the feet to numerous sources of stress and pressure.

Stress Fracture
A stress fracture is a small crack or severe bruising within a bone and is mostly caused by overuse and repetitive activities.

Tendinopathy and Tendonitis
Tendonitis is the resulting inflammation from tendinopathy (or tendinosis), a common overuse injury caused by frequent and long-term excessive compression.

Tendon Rupture
A tendon rupture is a tear in the tendon connecting bone to muscle. This foot injury is painful and prevents the foot and ankle from moving freely.

Tendon Strain
A strain is a stretch or tear in the tissues making up a tendon or muscle. These injuries commonly occur while participating in sports.

A wound is a physical injury to the body that bypasses the protective function of the skin and risks contamination and infection to the site of the trauma.

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