A sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon where the tendon passes over a joint. Tendons themselves are strong bands of tissue that attach the muscles to the bone.
Each foot contains two small sesamoid bones. They are about the size of a pea and are located in the ball of the foot just beneath the big toe joint. A sesamoid acts as a pulley to help a tendon flex and curl. A sesamoid injury affects the bone’s ability to provide leverage while walking and jumping. During these activities, the sesamoid bones carry much of the body’s weight, which is why it is concerning when they become irritated or fractured.
There are three types of Sesamoid Injury that can occur within the foot and each one is caused by different factors:
Ankle fractures are common foot injuries most often caused by your ankle rolling inward or outward. A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone.
A stress fracture is a small crack or severe bruising within a bone and is mostly caused by overuse and repetitive activities.
A sesamoid bone injury can be a very painful experience. An acute fracture produces an immediate pain and swelling at the site of the break but usually does not affect the entire big toe joint. On the other hand, a chronic sesamoid fracture produces long standing pain in the ball of the foot beneath the big toe joint. The pain tends to come and go, becoming aggravated during activity and relieved while resting.
Another sesamoid injury, turf toe, causes immediate, sharp pain and swelling. It usually affects the entire big toe joint and limits the motion of the toe. A patient with sesamoiditis shows symptoms like that of a chronic fracture.
Inflammation is a process by which the white blood cells, and substances they produce, protect us from an infection of foreign organisms, such as bacteria.
Metatarsalgia (Pain in the Ball of the Foot)
Metatarsalgia is a condition of inflammaion and pain in the ball of the foot. It is usually from excessive pressure under the foot.
In diagnosing a sesamoid injury, your doctor will ask you about your symptoms, medical history and activities. The foot and ankle surgeon will examine the foot focusing on the big toe joint. The surgeon will press on the big toe, move it up and down, and may assess the way you walk. He may also evaluate the wear pattern of your shoes. An x-ray will be ordered and in some cases advanced imaging studies may be required too.
If you need help in treating your sesamoid injury, contact a doctor as soon as possible.
Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that orthopaedic surgeons use to treat problems in the ankle joint.
Foot and Ankle Fracture Repair (ORIF)
Ankle Fracture Repair, or Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), is a type of surgery used to stabilize and heal a broken bone.
Minimally Invasive Surgery
In minimally invasive surgery, our doctors use a variety of techniques to operate with less damage to the body than with open surgery.