An ankle sprain refers to tearing of the ligaments of the ankle. The most common ankle sprain occurs on the lateral (outside) part of the ankle. There’s a good chance you may have sprained your ankle at some point while playing sports or stepping on an uneven surface — some 25,000 people do it every day. It can happen in the setting of an ankle fracture (when the bones of the ankle also break). Most commonly, however, it occurs in isolation.
As noted above, these injuries occur when the ankle is twisted underneath the leg, called inversion. Risk factors are activities, such as jumping/cutting sports like basketball and soccer, in which an athlete can come down on and turn the ankle or step on an opponent’s foot.
Some people are predisposed to ankle sprains. These injuries are more common in people with a high arched foot. This is because it is easier to turn on the ankle.
In those who have had a severe sprain in the past, it is also easier to turn the ankle and sustain a new sprain. Therefore, one of the risk factors of spraining the ankle is a history of a previous sprain or instability (looseness in the ankle). Those who have weak muscles, especially the peroneals that run along the outside of the ankle that provide muscular support to the ankle, may be more predisposed.
Ankle sprains can be diagnosed fairly easily given that they are common injuries. Pain on the outside of the ankle, tenderness and swelling, and an ankle with an inversion-type injury may indicate a sprain. An inversion injury, which means the foot rolls underneath the ankle or leg. It commonly occurs during sports. Patients may complain of pain on the outside of their ankle and various degrees of swelling and bruising. Depending on the severity of the sprain, a person may or may not be able to put weight on the foot.
In these patients, normal X-rays also suggest that the bone has not been broken and instead the ankle ligaments have been torn or sprained.
It is very important, however, not to simply regard any injury as an ankle sprain because other injuries can occur as well. For example, the peroneal tendons can be torn. There also can be fractures in other bones around the ankle, including the fifth metatarsal or the calcaneus (heel bone). See a foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeon in your area for a thorough examination.
In very severe cases, an MRI may be warranted to rule out other problems in the ankle such as damage to the cartilage. An MRI typically is not necessary to diagnose a sprain and is reserved for patients who are slow to recover and do not follow the normal progression of healing.
Surgery is not required in the vast majority of ankle sprains. Even in severe sprains, these ligaments will heal without surgery if treated appropriately. The grade of the sprain will dictate treatment. Sprains are traditionally classified into Grade 1 (mild), Grade 2 (moderate), and Grade 3 (severe) injuries. Perhaps more important, however, is the patient’s ability to bear weight. Those that can bear weight even after the injury are likely to return very quickly to normal activities. Those who cannot walk may need to be immobilized.
Treating your sprained ankle properly may prevent chronic pain and instability. For a Grade 1 sprain, follow the R.I.C.E. guidelines:
For a Grade 2 sprain, follow the R.I.C.E. guidelines and allow more time for healing. A doctor may immobilize or splint your ankle.
A Grade 3 sprain puts you at risk for permanent ankle looseness (instability), especially if not treated appropriately. Surgery rarely is needed to repair the damage, but may be common in competitive athletes who want an expedited recovery and patients who experience chronic ankle instability (a loose ankle that often gives out even when not participating in sports or high-impact activities). For severe ankle sprains, your doctor may consider treating you with a tall walking boot or cast for several weeks.
Severe ligament injuries often require rehabilitation. The goals of therapy are to allow for optimal healing of the ligaments, return to sport/work as quickly as possible, and prevent re-injury.
There are 3 phases of recovery:
Once you can stand on your ankle again, your doctor will prescribe exercise routines to strengthen your muscles and ligaments, and increase your flexibility, balance, and coordination. Later, you may walk, jog, and run figure-eights with your ankle taped or in a supportive ankle brace.
It’s important to complete the rehabilitation program because it makes it less likely that you’ll hurt the same ankle again. If you don’t complete rehabilitation or if your ligament heals in a stretched-out position and cannot perform its normal function, you could suffer chronic pain, instability, and arthritis in your ankle. If your ankle still hurts, it could mean that the sprained ligament or ligaments have not healed right, or that some other injury occurred at the time of the ankle sprain (e.g., cartilage damage or tendon injury).
To prevent future ankle sprains, pay attention to your body’s warning signs to slow down when you feel pain or fatigue, and stay in shape with good muscle balance, flexibility, and strength.
Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction
Lateral ankle ligament reconstruction is a surgery to tighten and firm up one or more of the ligaments on the outside of the ankle.