The gastrocnemius (gastroc) and the soleus are two muscles that make up the calf. The gastroc is the larger and more superficial of the two muscles. The soleus is a deeper muscle within the lower leg. The gastroc tendon combines with the soleus tendon to form the Achilles tendon.
Tightness in the calf can limit how far the ankle can flex up. This may make it difficult to walk with the heel on the floor. Over time, calf tightness may contribute to many foot problems, including heel pain, Achilles tendon pain, flatfoot deformity, toe pain, and bunions.
A gastrocnemius release lengthens the gastrocnemius tendon. This is done to increase the flexibility of the calf muscle, which can decrease pressure at the front of the foot, improve function, and decrease deformity.
Your foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeon may recommend this surgery if you have tightness of the gastroc that has not improved with stretching exercises. This procedure can be combined with other reconstructive procedures or be performed by itself.
Surgery may not be recommended if you can obtain an appropriate range of motion and flexibility with conservative treatment (stretching). It should also be avoided if there are contractures of multiple tendons in the leg, and not just the gastroc.
Equinus contracture is a condition in which the upward bending motion of the ankle joint is limited, lacking the flexibility to lift the top of the foot.
Adult flatfoot is caused by changes in the tendon, impairing its ability to support the arch, thus resulting in the flattening of the foot.
Injuries to the Achilles Tendon
An overly stressed Achilles tendon can be subject to mild or serious injuries. If the injury is mild or moderate, it may be limited to burning or stiffness.
Your surgeon may perform this surgery through several different incisions. Most commonly, a small incision is made on the inner side of the lower leg. Sometimes an incision directly in the back of the calf is used, or even an endoscopic incision, which is about ½ inch. Once the gastroc tendon is identified, it is separated from the underlying muscle belly of the soleus, then cut straight across. Once the tendon is released, the ankle is flexed up and an increased range of motion is noted intraoperatively.
For the first two weeks after surgery, the patient typically is immobilized in a splint or boot. It is important to keep the ankle in a proper position while the tendon is healing. A cramping feeling in the back of the calf is normal. Gentle range of motion and stretching exercises begin once the ankle is removed from the splint/boot. Timing can vary depending upon the other procedures that are performed.
After a gastroc release, some patients experience nerve injury that results in irritation or numbness over the outside of the heel. This usually is temporary. In addition, some patients may notice a difference in the appearance of one calf compared to the other and temporary calf weakness.